ABC brings back Sievert Rohwer – May 1, 2017

ABC teamed with Tahoma Audubon and the Slater Museum at UPS to bring back one of our favorite speakers from 2015, Sievert Rohwer of UW/Burke Museum, to explain molt migration to us. He decided we understood his previous talk on types of molt, so instead of reviewing, he plunged directly into molt migration. It was a privilege to have him return to see us, as we learned a lot last time and felt we had made a friend.

Sievert Rohwer and Peter Wimberger with ABCers

Peter Wimberger, director of the Slater Museum, introduced his previous professor to the crowd and presented him with a Slater Museum T-shirt!

ABCers Diane & Faye assist Sievert with his new Slater Museum shirt

Professor Rohwer got right into it with evidence that previous researchers had gotten it wrong, assuming that since they knew the pattern of molt migration in eastern species — that western species would have a similar pattern. Wrong! Turns out Sievert’s team found Lucy’s Warbler molts on its wintering grounds in Mexico and not in the U.S. before migration, and they were just the first inkling of a larger pattern. The Adolfo study turned over the old paradigm by studying specimens from every collection they could get, showing western molting birds to be much more likely in Mexico than the U.S.

Western molt migration discovery

And these passerines weren’t just molting in Mexico, but in the coastal lowlands. Some older studies had been skewed by the fact that collectors liked the mountains, but birds didn’t. There was a true difference from eastern U.S. neotropical migrants who molted before flying south. Our western birds followed the Mexican monsoons. Sievert vividly recounted how rich in birds an area would be, then his team would go elsewhere, only to return 2 weeks later and find the area devoid of birds after the swarms stripped monsoon growth bare. Many of the birds had the ability to put on huge stores of fat overnight that allowed them to lead this kind of life.

Coastal lowlands species richness

Seasonal monsoon precipitation


Painted Buntings’ migration patterns showed molting grounds and wintering grounds that didn’t match up, as shown by new monthly population maps. These are more up-slope movements, and again the maps show this trend when overlaid by elevation and moisture. (See

Painted Bunting migration animation

A disturbing piece of research has revealed that passerine females who molt down south have a rougher time of it than the males, arriving later for a shorter molt cycle, finding the males have eaten all the best food, and then being stuck having to grow a set of primaries simultaneously instead of taking their time.

Sievert spiced up his slide show with giant grasshoppers being eaten by beetles and other grasshoppers, as well as tarantulas and instructions on how to catch them!

Sievert offered instructions on catching tarantulas like this


Species discussed included Lucy’s Warbler, Lazuli Bunting, Indigo Bunting, Bullock’s Oriole, and then when Sievert was trying to tie up his talk, he started in on Yellow-billed Cuckoos. Apparently they used to breed all over the western U.S., but they really haven’t decreased in the way we think up here in Washington. Instead, cuckoos found lots of food closer to where they molted and quit coming north. Unless you’re talking strictly about Washington State, these birds are not endangered at all, but very common! We need to know more about this, Sievert!

Sievert’s last slide posed the question, “How did collections fail us?” This turned out to be a major theme for this research. Numbers of specimens and times of collection in the past bore little correlation to where the most birds were and what they were doing. Thanks to Sievert Rohwer, that is changing.

Sievert Rohwer with ABC program whiz, Kay Pullen

April 12, 2017 – ABC’s new best friend – Noah Strycker!


Noah's Arc led him to 41 countries and 6042 birds.

4-12-17 – Noah made one long trip to get his 6042 birds in 41 countries.

Noah Strycker struck gold on April 12, 2017, when he visited Tacoma and was treated by ABC like the VIP he has become.  Getting Noah for ABC was a dream come true for Kay Pullen who had been plotting ever since she got ABC to read Noah Strycker’s book, The Thing with Feathers, a couple of years ago.  The event mushroomed into the biggest event ABC has held to this date, necessitating a change in venue to the Rotunda at UPS, finagled by Peter Wimberger, director of the Slater Museum, and Kay’s fellow conspirator for this event.  Fellow sponsor, Tahoma Audubon, managed collection of fees and checked people in. There were over 150 people in the rotunda when Noah arrived after meeting earlier with UPS students and ABC principals.

Noah Strycker’s appearance filled the UPS Rotunda

4-12-17 – Tahoma Audubon & UPS/Slater Museum selling souvenirs & Noah’s books

We already knew Noah had a talent for birding and a talent for writing, but tonight we found that he has a talent for holding a large audience in the palm of his hand! With his expertly-curated collection of photos, the Power-Point presentation hummed along in harmony with Noah’s story, which started before he was even born and proceeded into his unknown, but brilliant, future. After shattering the previous record by approximately 1500 species, Noah finished 2015 with 6042 birds!! He wore the crown for a year, but challenger Arjan Dwarshuis of the Netherlands broke it in 2016, and the two have become friends with many stories to compare.

4-12-17 – Kay Pullen & Peter Wimberger introduce Noah Strycker

4-12-17 – Noah Strycker has our attention!

Noah wrote a daily blog during his Year, which many of us followed, and which is being expanded into his upcoming book, Birding Without Borders: An Obsession, a Quest, and the Biggest Year in the World, due this fall. While you’re waiting for the book, you can still read his blog:

4-12-17 – Noah is mobbed after his talk (photo/Art Wang)

4-12-17 – The people who made it happen: Kay Pullen, Ken Brown, Our star – Noah Strycker, & Ed Pullen

4-12-17 – Jody Hess, Kay Pullen, Laurel Parshall below, Noah Strycker, Diane Yorgason-Quinn, Vera Cragin, Faye McAdams Hands

Noah made it clear that he couldn’t have done this year alone.  He used native guides as much as possible and as a result had as many people stories as he did bird stories.  We predict much to come from this young man and are very happy to have become some of his people.

June 6: Joe and Maggie Tieger present: “South Georgia Island, Seabird Paradise”

Join the Advanced Birding Club (ABC) of Tahoma Audubon as our own ABCers Joe Tieger, retired from the US. Fish and Wildlife Service and Super Fund Program at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and his wife Maggie, also retired from working on the international endangered species program at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, discuss their recent adventure to South Georgia Island. Experience this remote island with its wild, spectacular landscapes and special wildlife (penguin, seal and seabird colonies) in the vibrant spring.  The island’s snow-covered mountains rise almost straight out of the sea and provide a backdrop for wildlife behaviors seldom seen elsewhere.  See vast colonies of King Penguins with their offspring “Oakum Boys”, Southern Elephant Seals nursing young, and bulls starting to fight for breeding rights, and awkward Wandering Albatross young on their nesting grounds.


Lecture Location:

Wednesday, June  6, 2017:  6:45 to 8:45pm

University Place Library Meeting Room

3609 Market Place W, Suite 100

University Place, WA 98466

Price: Free

Maggie Tieger, Tahoma Audubon director Emily Kalnicky, & Joe Tieger

Dr. Sievert Rohwer back for May Day 2017!

Sievert Rohwer presents “Molt Migration in Western Passerines”
Monday, May 1, 2017, $10 (details below)
Join the Advanced Birding Club (ABC) of Tahoma Audubon and the Slater Museum of Natural History at the University of Puget Sound in presenting curator and Professor Emeritus of the University of Washington Burke Museum, Dr. Sievert Rohwer, who will discuss his inside view of molt and what we don’t know about it.  He will review his work that feather regrowth can’t be hurried, with the main differences between molt strategies having to do with how many feathers are molted at the same time: Simple (one at a time), Complex (various strategies including stepwise), and Simultaneous, with most feathers molted together.  He will start with an addendum to the earlier talk in December 2015 by reviewing new data for Golden Eagles showing that rectrices are replaced by need, rather than in a set sequence.  He’ll be talking generally about many years of work by Burke staff and students on molt migration that took us on surveys to great places in the SW and, finally, to coastal NW Mexico, where they discovered huge numbers of molt migrants.  This molt migration talk will review this issue in western passerines, and consider possible effects of habitat changes due to irrigated agriculture on the decline of some western breeders. 

Lecture Location: 

University of Puget Sound

1565 N Union Ave

Tacoma WA 98416

Building: Thompson Hall, Room 175

Price: $10, payable online through Tahoma Audubon at


Brief Bio:

Ph.D.  University of Kansas. 1971.

Curator of Birds and Professor of Biology, University of Washington 1972.


Dr. Rohwer studies “evolutionary ecology and behavior, mostly of birds, with interests in avian coloration, adoption of unrelated offspring by replacement mates, avian hybrid zones, brood parasitism, phylogeography, and life history implications of feather renewal.  Under my curatorship the ornithology collections at the Burke Museum became internationally distinguished, with the largest collection of extended wings in the world and the second largest collection of avian tissues in the world.”



  1. AOU Elliott Coues award recognizing “extraordinary contributions to ornithological research.”
  2. Cooper Society Katma Award for “formulation of new ideas that could change the course of thinking about avian biology.”
Review a short report on his earlier talk for ABC in December 2015 on molt here:


March 11, 2017 – eBirding in the field with Wendy Connally!

Wendy at Luhr Beach in the rain

Wendy Connally of WDFW took us in the field on a very rainy morning to try out our new eBird cell phone app abilities after we heard her and Bill Tweit on Tuesday evening tell us just how to do it.

First to Luhr Beach where, except for one crazy Red-breasted Merganser, the waterfowl stayed well out there.

eBirding as a group activity

Then to Mounts Road and then birding our way home, where we did a “traveling” list in our car which added a California Scrub-jay and more of those nasty Eagles.  It wasn’t a Big Day for birds, but the small numbers were probably good for learners.

eBirders with Wendy front & center

More photos on FLICKR plus Wendy’s “Cheat Sheets.”

Don’t forget to read Ed’s careful notes on HOW TO:

How to Use the Mobile eBird App ABC Meeting Summary

And the MOVIE!!!  Very good:

Thanks, Wendy! We’re better birders now, at least some of us.


Noah Strycker presents “Birding Without Borders: An Epic World Big Year” — April 12, 2017

Noah Strycker visits ABC!  Wednesday, April 12, 2017 6:45-8:30 pm, UPS, Wheelock Student Center Rotunda, $10.  See below for sign-up info and directions.

The Advanced Birding Club (ABC) of the Tahoma Audubon Society and the Slater Museum of Natural History at the University of Puget Sound will present writer, author and bird nerd Noah Strycker of Oregon, who became the first human to see more than half of the planet’s bird species in a single, year-long, round-the-world birding trip.

Noah Strycker will tell us his secrets to cracking Planet Earth’s bird list on April 12th

Anything could have happened, and a lot did. He was scourged by blood-sucking leeches, suffered fevers and sleep deprivation, survived airline snafus and car breakdowns and mudslides and torrential floods, skirted war zones, and had the time of his life. Birding on seven continents and carrying only a pack on his back, Strycker enlisted the enthusiastic support of local birders to tick more than 6,000 species, including Adelie Penguins in Antarctica, a Harpy Eagle in Brazil, a Spoon-billed Sandpiper in Thailand, and a Green-breasted Pitta in Uganda. He shared the adventure in real time on his daily blog ( in 2015, and now he reveals the inside story. This humorous and inspiring presentation about Strycker’s epic World Big Year will leave you with a new appreciation for the birds and birders of the world.

Noah Strycker, 31, is Associate Editor of Birding magazine, the author of two well-regarded books about birds, and a regular contributor of photography and articles to all major bird magazines as well as other media; he blogs regularly for the American Birding Association. Strycker set a world Big Year record in 2015, and his book about the experience will be released in November 2017. Strycker has studied birds on six continents with field seasons in Panama, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Hawaii, Maine, Michigan, Australia, Antarctica, the Galapagos Islands, and the Farallon Islands. He also works as a naturalist guide on expedition cruises to Antarctica and Norway’s Svalbard archipelago, literally spreading the inspiration of birds from pole to pole. His first book, Among Penguins, chronicles a field season working with Adélie Penguins in Antarctica (Oregon State University Press, 2011) and his second, The Thing with Feathers, celebrates the fascinating behaviors of birds and human parallels (Riverhead Books, 2014). Strycker is also a competitive tennis player, has run five marathons, and hiked the 2,650-mile Pacific Crest Trail from Mexico to Canada. He is based in Oregon, where his backyard has hosted more than 100 species of birds. Visit his website at:

Lecture Location:  University of Puget Sound, 1565 N Union Ave., Tacoma WA 98416

Building: Wheelock Student Center Rotunda, University of Puget Sound.   Directions: Going north on N Alder St, turn left onto N 15th Street. Parking is at N 15th St and N Lawrence, to your north as you come in on 15th. The Wheelock Student Center is south of 15th. Within the Wheelock Student Center, go to the Rotunda Room. For more information, see University of Puget Sound’s online maps.

Tickets:  Seating is limited. Tickets are $10 and can be purchased online at Tahoma Audubon’s sign-up sheet.  A portion of the proceeds will benefit Tahoma Audubon.  Access the sign-up sheet online:

 See you there!

How to Use the Mobile eBird App ABC Meeting Summary

Tuesday March 7th the ABC meeting at the UP Library featured a program by Wendy Connolly of the WA Dept of Fish and Wildlife, who presented on how to use the eBird mobile app to best benefit both us as birders and the eBird data base to help conservationists and biologists do their work.
Bill Tweit, one of our WOS members, a Westport Seabirds leader, and superb birder as well as being an eBird guru was also in attendance to add a birder’s expertise and point of view. Bill talked of how by using the mobile app instead of going home and transcribing field notes into the online eBird interface saves time, improves accuracy, and maybe most important is a positive factor in relationships with non-birding partners. Now when he gets home instead of an hour on the computer entering data, he has a glass of wine with his wife.

Bill Tweit (Android) & Wendy Connally (iPhone) offer eBird help, with a bit of a flame war

An important feature of the app is that there is always a way to fix, or change choices made along the way. You can usually make these changes within the app, and if not you can make changes later using the eBird online interface. Don’t worry about making mistakes, you can fix them later.

Here is a summary of the “How to use the eBird mobile app presentation.

Download the Free eBird App:
You’ll want to have the eBird mobile app on your smart phone. You can download the eBird app from either the Apple or Google app store. It’s free, and has ongoing free upgrades and support. It looks like this on the Apple store:

After you download the app, the first time you use the app it will ask for your eBird user name and password, so that it can upload data from your mobile app into your eBird account.

Once downloaded and registered you are ready to start.

On opening the app you’ll see a screen with a big green “Start NEW CHECKLIST” icon, and several other smaller options below this.

Opening Screen:

-The “My Checklists” option brings up a reverse chronological list of checklists entered using the app.
-The “Trip Summary” brings up a summary of the sightings noted today, over a period of time you can choose, or all time.
-The little “?” icon at the left bottom is the help section of the app. Wendy says it will be your new best friend. It has FAQ options, a tutorial likely better than this one, an area to send feedback to the eBird team.
The little gear symbol at the bottom right brings you to your personal settings area.

Start New Checklist
First just click on the eBird app icon on your phone, and tap on the “Start NEW CHECKLIST green button on the screen. This brings you to an area to select your location. This can be one of the most confusing areas for beginners. Don’t let it be a roadblock.

Select Location and Starting Time:

There are seven options as to how to select your location. Wendy stressed that the default option should be the second from the top, “Choose a Location From Map.” This brings up a screen of the area you are currently located denoted by a yellow teardrop shaped marker. It may also show red markers (eBird Hotspots) and Blue Markers (Your personal locations). (note that these markers are also labeled at the bottom of the screen view)

If a Red Hotspot marker is on the screen and it appropriately describes your location you should use the hotspot location. To use a location just tap on or touch the marker you choose. Using a Hotspot marker if appropriate allows the best compilation of data. If you have birded in this location previously you will see Blue markers. If there is no hotspot you should use your previous location so that data from the location will be compiled as one location, not many separate but nearly identical locations. If neither a hotspot or a previous personal spot marker are appropriate you should use the default yellow marker. This is where you are currently located as determined by the GPS function of your phone. If you don’t choose another location, the yellow current location marker will be the default place chosen by the app.

If you use a Hotspot or Previous location the checklist for that location will load when you click next at the top right to move to the next step. If you choose a new personal location you will have a two more things to do.

Before you accept your current location you probably will want to name the location something more descriptive than the street address and longitude-latitude coordinates. This is especially helpful if no street address is shown. To do this just “long press” on the location shown, once it becomes highlighted just type in a description, for example “Dad’s Backyard” to make a personal location you can use repeatedly or at least know where the list is from. Then tap on “next” in the top R corner of the screen.

This will bring you to a screen to start a checklist.

Best practice is to do all of this right when you arrive at a new location. If you do it then the current time will be correct and you can just click on the bar at the bottom to “Start Checklist.” If you need to adjust the time you can do it by adjusting a few minutes using the + or – “Adjust Minutes” circles, you can “Reset to Now” by clicking on that option in green typeface, or you can tap on the time itself and a scroll screen will appear allowing you to change the hour and minute and even date you started birding. When the time is correct you click on the “Start Checklist” green bar at the bottom.

Sometimes it saves time to use one of the other options for selecting a location, rather than using “Choose a Location From Map.” Here is a brief discussion on when to choose a different option: (note that this information is from me, not from Wendy’s talk, so if mistakes it’s all on me.)

Choose a Recent Location: This is a descriptive label. If you birded the same location recently click this, and your most recent checklist locations will appear in reverse chronologic order. If you are at a place you birded in the last 5-10 checklist entries this may be a good option.

Create an Offline Checklist: This is for use when you don’t have a cell connection. When you choose this it will mark your location using the GPS feature of your phone, and you will need to confirm your location prior to submission of your list later when you have internet connectivity. More on this later.

Create a New Personal Location:
This should be a rarely used feature. Use the Choose a Location From Map instead so you don’t miss a nearby hotspot, or previous personal location.

Choose a Nearby Hotspot: This brings up a list of nearby hotspots instead of a map showing nearby hotspots. It may be easier if you know where you are and know it is a hotspot and you know the hotspot name.

Search Hotspots by City: Almost always a better choice to use other location options. This may be useful as a way to look for local hotspot names in a distant city, but not for actual real-time location choices.

Choose a Nearby Personal Location:
This can be useful if you know you have birded in this location previously and entered a list using your phone app. It will bring up a list of nearby personal locations. Duh?

Enter Species Sightings.
Once you choose the location a checklist of species of birds likely in that location is downloaded you are ready to enter species you encounter while birding. The best practice for data entry is to enter birds as you see them. This is practical when birding is slow, or you just seeing birds occasionally, but not really practical when birding is faster paced. IF you cannot enter birds as you encounter them try to do it as frequently as is reasonable. Waiting several hours to enter species on a longer stop lends more room for forgetting species, or for mis-estimation of numbers of birds seen. .

No “X’ Lists Rule:
At any rate however you enter data, ALWAYS try to make your best reasonable estimate of the actual number of species seen, and avoid using the “X” feature denoting you saw the species but are not saying how many A best estimate is much more useful than an “X” for data analysis by biologists and researchers.

We did learn some cool tricks for entering species information. At the top of the species lists are three options of what view to see. The default on opening is the “Likely” screen in the middle of the menu bar at the top of the screen. It lists all species deemed “usual” from the eBird database for the location you are birding. The option on the right is the “Checked” view. This shows you species and numbers already entered. On the left is an “All” option. It is for use when you need to add a species not expected in your location. It brings up a list of all 10,000+ world species, so it is no useful as a scroll through list for finding a species, but if you cannot find a species you identify in the “likely” screen, it will be in the “all” screen.

You can find a species by scrolling down through the likely species list. This is useful when entering birds after a bit of time birding. Once you find the species you want, you can enter the number seen by tapping on the + symbol at the left of the species. Each tap will add 1 to the number seen. This is fine when only a few are seen. If you see a large number tap on the species name and a screen to enter the number seen will occur. You could for example enter an estimated 500 Dunlin in a flock this way. After entering the count, just click on the “Done” button at the top of the screen.

If you are entering a species when you see it, or adding one or a few species to a list, it may be easier to use the # species name/code entry space at the top of the list. In this space you can enter the number of birds seen and the species name or 4 letter code. On iPhones you will need to put a space between the number and the species name or code. On android phones don’t use a space.

For example on my iPhone if I want to enter a sighting of 4 American Robins, I can type in the dialogue box “4 amro” which will bring a screen with American Robin as an option to select. If I tap on American Robin, the app will enter 4 next to the species American Robin. Later if I see an additional 35 robins, I could tap the number area 35 time, I could add in my head 4 + 35 and tap on American Robin to go to the species area and change 4 to 35, or I could just type in the dialogue box “35 amro” and tap on the American Robin species and the app will add 35 to the 4 and now show 39 American Robins seen. Don’t be intimidated by the 4 letter codes. The app is smart, and using a few letters of either the first or last name usually gets you to just a few species to pick from. Hint: Choose the more unique name, i.e. choose “Bay-breasted” rather than “warbler” to get a shorter list.

Review and Submit Your List:

Once you have a list complete you will want to Review and Submit the list. If you selected a location to start once you click on “Review and Submit” on the bottom of the screen a screen asking for information about your visit will occur.

Yes or No to the complete list question?:

At the top is the choice asking, “Are you submitting a complete checklist of the birds you were able to identify.” The best practice is to be able to check yes here. Remember it is YOUR LIST. You enter information for your level of expertise. Don’t worry that you missed some sightings. Use this option if you are trying to enter all the birds you were able to identify. If you were on a hike and are only entering one or two of the species you saw and making no effort to enter others you saw and could identify, then select “No.” In general try to be in a position where you can JUST SAY YES!

Choose an Observation Type:

-Traveling: This is for when you are traveling by foot or vehicle over more than a fairly limited location. If you wander up to 30 meters or so, choose a Stationary location. If travelling enter the estimated “one way” distance. On out and back hikes use just one direction to describe the actual distance of terrain covered.

-Stationary: This is for use when a location is fairly limited, i.e. up to 30 meters of so of moving about to see birds.

-Incidental: This is best for entey of a species of interest you want to document, but when you are not trying to enter all the species seen. An example is seeing a Peregrine Falcon fly in front of your vehicle while traveling, or seeing a flock of common murre fly past a ferry when you are not primarily birding.

Other: for specialized birding activities.

Number of Observers: Self explanatory, enter the number of people birding with you. Don’t worry if they are entering their own lists. You can share a list or each enter your own, if in a group describe the number of birders.

Duration: If you started the checklist when you start, and submit or end when you finish, just use the “Calculate” feature and the clock in your phone will fill in the number of minutes. If not enter the duration of your birding in minutes

If a green checkbox shows up beside any of your sightings something is unusual about the sighting, and it falls outside the eBird “filter.” First double check to be sure you have not made a data entry error. This happens often using a small screen like a phone. If it is an error you can delete the sighting by swiping from the Right on iPhones or long-tapping the sighting on androids. You can then enter the correct species if needed by clicking on the “add species” option. If you really saw what you entered, you will need to enter information in the comments section of the species. To do this tap on the species and a dialogue box will show up where you should describe the sighting, how you made the ID, what optics were used, etc. Don’t be intimidated by this, it helps the eBird reviewers assess the sighting validity and helps keep the eBird data base more valid. Then check the green box prior to submitting the checklist.

Submit the Checklist:

Once you have reviewed the list click “Submit” on the bottom of the screen and your list will be submitted to eBird and will be added to your personal account.

Offline Checklists:

When you are birding in areas where you do not have a cell connection good enough for internet data, you will not be able to select a location from a map, or using internet connectivity. In those cases you may need to enter an “Offline” checklist. Other options may be “Choose a Recent Location” if you have birded here recently. When you use the enter an offline checklist option the first option is whether to use a “Recent Checklist” or the “Full Taxonomy” option. It is almost always better to choose a “Recent Checklist” The likely species may not be perfect, but it is likely it will better facilitate species data entry that the full world taxonomy checklist .

Wendy taught us a handy way to prepare to go birding in a place where you know you’ll be offline and where none of your recent checklists will be appropriate. This is great for international travel, or for just a first trip to a place with a very different avifauna than on any of your recent checklists. In this case just start a checklist before you leave for the Hotspot you are going to visit, or for a nearby hotspot. Then leave the checklist unsubmitted, and when you get to the place, and start an offline checklist, you can use the “Recent Checklist” option to select an appropriate likely list for where you are birding. Pretty cool, like a Boy Scout, you an “Be Prepared.”

After you select a recent checklist the phone will use the GPS feature to find your location, usually within 5-10 meters. Once the location is reasonably close, click on OK and you will proceed on the same process as for every checklist.

Later, after you complete your sightings checklist, once you have internet connectivity you will just confirm the location prior to submitting. When you check “Submit” you will be forced to confirm the location in order to be able to submit the list. Just follow directions to do this.

Wendy finally gets us to the Submit page! Tah-Dah!

This is just the basic stuff, but with a little practice you’ll be entering eBird data in the field like a pro. Many thanks to Wendy and the Department of Fish and Wildlife for their continued support and teaching.